There are no explicit guidelines regulating such matters, but there are some sacred principles that surely must be taken into consideration in assessing this issue from a biblical perspective.
First, there is an appointed scale of authority that God has prescribed for humankind, though such is scarcely recognized in today’s modern world. Paul alludes to it in First Corinthians 11:2ff.
Namely, God is the head of Christ; Christ is the head of every man; and man is the head of woman.
For our present purpose, we will explore the meaning of the phrase, “the head of the woman is the man.”
Man, Head of Woman
The Greek term is
kephale. The word may be used literally of a physical head (Mk. 6:24) or metaphorically of rank — as in the present case.
God the Father is the head of Christ because Jesus, by means of the incarnation, subordinated himself to the Father (Phil. 2:5-8).
Next, Christ is “the head of every man” (1 Cor. 11:3). It is important to note that the expression every man is more comprehensive than every Christian man. Some commentators take the position that Christ’s headship here pertains only to Christian men (Meyer, Fee, etc.). Others insist that the relationship principle is broader than merely that of a Christian woman to a Christian man.
Findlay argues that the issue here:
“is one that touches the fundamental proprieties of life (8-15); and the three headships enumerated belong to the hierarchy of nature” (p. 871).
Lewis Johnson contends that the male gender as such “displays the authority of God on earth” (1247; cf. 11:7).
Lenski asserts that the phrase “every man” must not be restricted to Christian men. Rather, literally, Christ is the head of “every man” whether they accept him or not (433).
The subsequent context regarding creation would appear to support this latter view.
Man and Woman or Husband and Wife?
Next, there is the controversy as to whether the terms of verse 3 are to be rendered “man” and “woman” or “husband” and “wife.”
The KJV, NKJV, ASV, NIV render the Greek terms
gune as “man” and “woman,” while a few other versions (NRSV, ESV) translate the original words as “husband” and “wife,” though inconsistently within the same context.
This diversity is due to the fact that the Greek words serve a dual function. In other words, the same words for man and woman are also used for husband and wife. In such a case, the context must determine which English word should be employed.
Neither the immediate passage nor the surrounding context warrants the rendition of “husband” or “wife.” Certainly, it is not suggested that Christ is the head of only husbands.
Thus, it would appear that in this context the apostle is discussing the principle of headship within the assembly of Christian worship, nonetheless, the principle of headship applies generally — in the home (cf. Eph. 5:22ff), in the church, and even beyond in our societal relationships.
Exactly how this principle is to be applied in various settings is the tough question.
Recognition of Authority
The word “usurp” as used in the King James translation of 1 Timothy 2:12 is not a good rendition of the original term. The Greek word
authenteo simply means to act authoritatively; to exercise authority.
In that context, it appears to have reference to spiritual matters. A woman is not to act in any official capacity as an authority figure over man in any sort of religious teaching role. For a more thorough study, see “Woman’s Role in the Church”.
Beyond this, however, there are these facts:
Authority In the home
Even in the home, the husband is to be the head and the wife is to be in “subjection” (Eph. 5:22ff). However, there is a sphere in which a woman is allowed to exert some authority. In one of his letters to Timothy, Paul declares that woman is to “rule the household” (1 Tim. 5:14). Allow me to quote from my commentary that addresses this matter.
“Almost surprisingly, Paul contends that the woman is to ‘rule the household.’ The term ‘rule’ (
oikodespotein— present tense; standard procedure) is a fairly strong word. It signifies to be the ‘master’ of a house, to ‘rule’ a household, ‘manage’ family affairs (Thayer, p. 439). The passage cannot be employed, of course, to cancel the role relationship taught elsewhere (e.g., Ephesians 5:22ff), but it does recognize that women have domestic skills that men do not possess. The wise husband will recognize this and cooperate with his wife, the result being a contented home. Lenski well noted that: ‘This is the domain and province of woman, in which no man can compete with her. Its greatness and its importance should ever be held up as woman’s divinely intended sphere, in which all her womanly qualities and gifts find full play and happiest gratification’ (p. 676). It is somewhat surprising at how many commentators slide lightly over this phrase” (Before I Die – Paul’s Letters to Timothy and Titus, 146-147).
Authority in Secular Work
In the modern world, there are many instances where a woman might be in a position of having authority over a man.
For example, suppose a business owner dies and the family business falls to his widow. May she continue to operate the business? Few, I suspect, would argue that she may not. The issue then becomes how she handles herself (i.e., her disposition and demeanor).
May a woman hire a carpenter to come in and work on her house or landscape her yard? Of course, she may. Might she give him instruction as to what to do? Yes. If she is dissatisfied with his work, might she dismiss him? Certainly.
There are many such examples one might imagine.
The key issue seems to be this. In any instance where a woman finds herself where she has some level of authority over a man, she must exercise such with great care. She must ever be conscious of their respective roles in the divine scheme of things.
She must always treat the man with respect, even if she is forced to correct him — or maybe even terminate his services. It will be a matter of attitude to a considerable degree.
It goes without saying, of course, that man’s headship over woman is never a license for him to be rude, domineering, or abusive to her. The golden rule applies to all social relationships.